The pentagram has long been believed to be a potent protection protection against evil, a symbol that shields
the wearer and the home.
The pentagram has five spiked wards and a womb shaped defensive, protective pentagon at the center.
There are five elements in the Wiccan world, four that are matter - Earth, Air, Fire, Water, and the Spirit. These
are arranged around the points.
The elements are placed in order of density - Spirit, Air, Fire, Water, Earth. Earth and fire are basal,
fixed. Air and Water are free, flowing.
In ritual, the pentagram is sometimes drawn in the air either using the hand or a ritual knife known as an athame.
Drawn one way to invoke, and the other way to banish.
Air - yellow, Fire - red, Water - blue, Earth - green
Banishing Pentagrams (same colours apply)
Single point upwards signifies ruling matter. It is a symbol of rightness. With two points facing
upwards and one (spirit) pointing downwards, it signifies subservience, the emphasis is on the carnal nature of man.
A pentagram may be open, without a surrounding circle - known as a pentacle. This is the active form symbolising
an outgoing of oneself, prepared for conflict, aware, active. As a pagan/wiccan religious symbol the open pentagram
represents an open, active approach.
A circle around a pentagram contains and protects. The circle symbolises eternity and infinity, the cycles
of life and nature. The circled pentagram is the passive form implying spiritual containment of the magick circle, and
the individual nature of the pagan/wiccan religious path.
The implcation of inversion of a pentagram is the spirit subserviant to matter, man subserviant to his carnal
desires. It has come to represent the 'dark side' and is considered a symbol of evil by Christians. In the 1940's,
Gerald Gardner adopted the inverted pentagram as a symbol of second degree initiation in the newly emergent, neo - pagan rituals
in what was to become wicca. It represents the need of the Witch to learn to face the darkness within so it will not
rise to take control. First degree uses a downward pointing triangle, third degree uses one - point up pentagram together
with a upright triangle.